Nanotechnology in Medicine
The application of nanotechnology in the field of medicine, truly has the potential to revolutionize the future of modern medicine. It can have a tremendous impact on diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease and traumatic injury,of relieving pain and of preserving and improving human health and many more. Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular level.The field combines elements of physics and molecular chemistry with engineering to take advantage of unique properties that occur at nanoscale.Though most biological processes happen at the nano level, it wasn’t until recently that new technological advancements helped in opening up the possibility of nanomedicine to healthcare researchers and professionals.
Benefits of using nanomaterials in the field of medicine are many like smaller devices are less invasive, they can be implemented inside the body, biochemical reaction time is much shorter and devices are faster and more sensitive than typical drug delivery.Some promising application of nanotechnology are :
- Drug delivery system
- Diagnostic techniques
- Cancer treatment
- Tissue engineering
- Neurodegenerative diseases treatment
- Cell Repair
Drug delivery system
One application of nanotechnology in medicine currently being developed involves employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, heat, light or other substances to specific types of cells . Particles are engineered so that they are attracted to diseased cells, which allows direct treatment of those cells. This technique reduces damage to healthy cells in the body and allows for earlier detection of disease.
Nanotechnology can revolutionize the way medical data is collected by using nano sized diagnostic devices.The devices will be able to travel throughout the bodies and detect chemical changes. Also these devices would be programmed into gathering information about certain body parts levels of toxins and other substances and report back to medical professionals port or its hosts. In the future it might become a reality that the nanorobots send alerts about the changes it detects. So detection of diseases and real-time tracking of a patient's health status will be possible .
The traditional method for curing cancer is chemotherapy that’s usually described as a carpet bombing of the body in many cases it kills cancer cell but it is also has a side effect of killing regular cells which makes patients extremely sick and susceptible to other conditions, but programmable nanoparticles that attacks cancer cells directly without damaging other tissues could mean a revolution in cancer treatment.
Nanotechnology may be used as part of tissue engineering to help reproduce or repair or reshape damaged tissue using suitable nanomaterial based scaffolds and growth factors. Tissue engineering if successful may replace conventional treatments like organ transplants or artificial implants. Nanoparticles such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, molybdenum disulfide and tungsten disulfide are being used as reinforcing agents to fabricate mechanically strong biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering applications.
Neurodegenerative diseases treatment
Neurological disorders are the most devastating and challenging diseases associated with the central nervous system.At present, the research direction of implementing nanotechnology in neurodegenerative diseases is mainly focused on drug delivery, maintaining drug concentration, and early accurate diagnosis and treatment of diseases based on the characteristics of nanomaterials. They have significant advantages over traditional drugs in their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.
In future nanorobots will be programmed to repair specific diseased cells, functioning in a similar way to antibodies in our natural healing processes.